ERα is a the receptor for 17β-estradiol. It has a variety of physiological roles, including those involved in maintenance of the reproductive, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and central nervous systems. ERα has major roles in metabolism and has also been implicated in bone density, obesity, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depressive disorder and numerous reproductive defects. ERα dysfunction is associated with many types of cancers including those originating from bone, colon, endometrium, prostate, uterus and most prominently the breast.
The AR is an androgen-activated transcription factor. The AR plays a key role in proper development and function of male reproductive organs. AR is expressed at low to moderate levels in tissues in all major physiological systems. AR dysfunction has been associated with a variety of cancers originating from the prostate, breast, ovary, colon and testis. AR activity has also been associated with cardiovascular and immune diseases, diabetes, obesity many other diseases. Knockout of AR results in disruption of embryonic development, reproduction, homeostasis and metabolism, behavioral function and the cardiovascular system among others.
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